Deleterious, protein-altering variants in the transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3 in 27 individuals with a neurodevelopmental delay phenotype.
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) result from highly penetrant variation in hundreds of different genes, some of which have not yet been identified. Using the MatchMaker Exchange, we assembled a cohort of 27 individuals with rare, protein-altering variation in the transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3, located on the X chromosome. Most (n = 24) individuals were males, 17 of which have a maternally inherited variant; six individuals (4 male, 2 female) harbor de novo variants. Overlapping features included developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and a specific facial gestalt in a subset of males. Variants in almost all individuals (n = 26) are missense, including six that recurrently affect two residues. Four unrelated probands were identified with inherited variation affecting Arg441, a site at which variation has been previously seen in NDD-affected siblings, and two individuals have de novo variation resulting in p.Arg1294Cys (c.3880C>T). All variants affect evolutionarily conserved sites, and most are predicted to damage protein structure or function. ZMYM3 is relatively intolerant to variation in the general population, is widely expressed across human tissues, and encodes a component of the KDM1A-RCOR1 chromatin-modifying complex. ChIP-seq experiments on one variant, p.Arg1274Trp, indicate dramatically reduced genomic occupancy, supporting a hypomorphic effect. While we are unable to perform statistical evaluations to definitively support a causative role for variation in ZMYM3, the totality of the evidence, including 27 affected individuals, recurrent variation at two codons, overlapping phenotypic features, protein-modeling data, evolutionary constraint, and experimentally confirmed functional effects strongly support ZMYM3 as an NDD-associated gene.
American journal of human genetics
Humans; Male; Female; Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Intellectual Disability; Phenotype; Gene Expression Regulation; Face; Nervous System Malformations; Nuclear Proteins; Histone Demethylases
X-linked intellectual disability; ZMYM3; chromatin modifiers; neurodevelopmental disorder; transcriptional coregulators
Hiatt SM, Trajkova S, Sebastiano MR, et al. Deleterious, protein-altering variants in the transcriptional coregulator ZMYM3 in 27 individuals with a neurodevelopmental delay phenotype. Am J Hum Genet. 2023;110(2):215-227. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.12.007