DOI: 10.1055/a-2015-1080; PMCID: PMC9937778
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign proliferative histiocytic disorder of the dendritic cell phenotype. It mostly presents in the pediatric age group as a solitary skin lesion. We describe a rare case of an infant born with disseminated JXG who presented with a blueberry muffin rash at birth. A term infant was noted to have multiple petechiae, purple nodules, and macules (1 mm-2 cm in diameter) and hepatosplenomegaly, at the time of birth. Further investigations revealed thrombocytopenia and direct hyperbilirubinemia and a magnetic resonance imaging showed scattered tiny foci of restricted diffusion in multiple areas of the brain. Patient received multiple platelet transfusions in the first few weeks with gradual improvement in thrombocytopenia. Ultimately, a biopsy of one of the lesions revealed the diagnosis of disseminated JXG with notable atypical features. Somatic mutation analysis showed a novel MYH9-FLT3 fusion, but a bone marrow biopsy was negative. The lesions faded over time, relative to patient's growth and normal neurodevelopment was noted at 18 months of age. JXG should be considered in the differentials of blueberry muffin rash in an infant. Although, JXG is mostly a self-limited condition, congenital disseminated JXG may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
JXG; MYH9-FLT3 fusion; blueberry muffin rash; juvenile xanthogranuloma; neonate
Clark EE, Walton M, Chow LML, Boyd JT, Yohannan MD, Arya S. Disseminated Juvenile Xanthogranuloma with a Novel MYH9-FLT3 Fusion Presenting as a Blueberry Muffin Rash in a Neonate. AJP Rep. 2023;13(1):e5-e10. Published 2023 Feb 17. doi:10.1055/a-2015-1080