Patient Demographics and Clinical Outcomes Among Type 1 Diabetes Patients Using Continuous Glucose Monitors: Data From T1D Exchange Real-World Observational Study.

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DOI: 10.1177/19322968211049783


BACKGROUND: The benefits of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) on glycemic management have been demonstrated in numerous studies; however, widespread uptake remians limited. The aim of this study was to provide real-world evidence of patient attributes and clinical outcomes associated with CGM use across clinics in the U.S. based T1D Exchange Quality Improvement (T1DX-QI) Collaborative.

METHOD: We examined electronic Health Record data from eight endocrinology clinics participating in the T1DX-QI Collaborative during the years 2017-2019.

RESULTS: Among 11,469 type 1 diabetes patients, 48% were CGM users. CGM use varied by race/ethnicity with Non-Hispanic Whites having higher rates of CGM use (50%) compared to Non-Hispanic Blacks (18%) or Hispanics (38%). Patients with private insurance were more likely to use CGM (57.2%) than those with public insurance (33.3%) including Medicaid or Medicare. CGM users had lower median HbA1c (7.7%) compared to nonusers (8.4%). Rates of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and severe hypoglycemia were significantly higher in nonusers compared to CGM users.

CONCLUSION: In this real-world study of patients in the T1DX-QI Collaborative, CGM users had better glycemic control and lower rates of DKA and severe hypoglycemia (SH) events, compared to nonusers; however, there were significant sociodemographic disparities in CGM use. Quality improvement and advocacy measures to promote widespread and equitable CGM uptake have the potential to improve clinical outcomes.

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J Diabetes Sci Technol





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MeSH Keywords

United States; Humans; Aged; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Medicare; Hypoglycemia; Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Demography


Type 1; continuous glucose monitoring; diabetes mellitus; diabetic ketoacidosis; hemoglobin A1c; severe hypoglycemia

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