Examining the Acute Glycemic Effects of Different Types of Structured Exercise Sessions in Type 1 Diabetes in a Real-World Setting: The Type 1 Diabetes and Exercise Initiative (T1DEXI).

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DOI: 10.2337/dc22-1721


OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of glycemic control during and after exercise remains a major challenge for individuals with type 1 diabetes. Glycemic responses to exercise may differ by exercise type (aerobic, interval, or resistance), and the effect of activity type on glycemic control after exercise remains unclear.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Type 1 Diabetes Exercise Initiative (T1DEXI) was a real-world study of at-home exercise. Adult participants were randomly assigned to complete six structured aerobic, interval, or resistance exercise sessions over 4 weeks. Participants self-reported study and nonstudy exercise, food intake, and insulin dosing (multiple daily injection [MDI] users) using a custom smart phone application and provided pump (pump users), heart rate, and continuous glucose monitoring data.

RESULTS: A total of 497 adults with type 1 diabetes (mean age ± SD 37 ± 14 years; mean HbA1c ± SD 6.6 ± 0.8% [49 ± 8.7 mmol/mol]) assigned to structured aerobic (n = 162), interval (n = 165), or resistance (n = 170) exercise were analyzed. The mean (± SD) change in glucose during assigned exercise was -18 ± 39, -14 ± 32, and -9 ± 36 mg/dL for aerobic, interval, and resistance, respectively (P < 0.001), with similar results for closed-loop, standard pump, and MDI users. Time in range 70-180 mg/dL (3.9-10.0 mmol/L) was higher during the 24 h after study exercise when compared with days without exercise (mean ± SD 76 ± 20% vs. 70 ± 23%; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Adults with type 1 diabetes experienced the largest drop in glucose level with aerobic exercise, followed by interval and resistance exercise, regardless of insulin delivery modality. Even in adults with well-controlled type 1 diabetes, days with structured exercise sessions contributed to clinically meaningful improvement in glucose time in range but may have slightly increased time below range.

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Diabetes care





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MeSH Keywords

Adult; Humans; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Hypoglycemia; Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Insulin Infusion Systems; Insulin; Insulin, Regular, Human; Exercise; Hypoglycemic Agents


Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Hypoglycemia; Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Insulin Infusion Systems; Insulin; Regular Human Insulin; Exercise; Hypoglycemic Agents

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