Effect of Age on Hypertension Recognition in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Report From the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study.

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DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.122.20354


Background: Young age has been associated with poorer control of hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using data from the CKiD Study (Chronic Kidney Disease in Children), we examined the relationship between age, hypertensive blood pressure (BP) recognition, and pharmacologic BP control in children with nondialysis-dependent CKD.

Methods: Participants included 902 CKiD Study participants with CKD stages 2 to 4. A total of 3550 annual study visits met inclusion criteria and participants were stratified by age (0 to <7, ≥7 to <13, ≥13 to ≤18 years). Generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures were applied to logistic regression analyses to evaluate the association of age with unrecognized hypertensive BP and medication use.

Results: Children < 7 years of age had a higher prevalence of hypertensive BP and a lower prevalence of antihypertensive medication use compared with older children. At visits where participants < 7 years of age had hypertensive BP readings, 46% had unrecognized, untreated hypertensive BP compared with 21% of visits for children ≥13 years of age. The youngest age group was associated with higher odds of unrecognized hypertensive BP (adjusted odds ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.37-3.24]) and lower odds of antihypertensive medication use among those with unrecognized hypertensive BP (adjusted OR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.996]).

Conclusions: Children younger than 7 years of age with CKD are more likely to have both undiagnosed and undertreated hypertensive BP. Efforts to improve BP control in young children with CKD are needed to minimize development of cardiovascular disease and slow CKD progression.

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MeSH Keywords

Humans; Child; Adolescent; Child, Preschool; Antihypertensive Agents; Hypertension; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Blood Pressure; Cardiovascular Diseases; Risk Factors


blood pressure; cardiovascular diseases; chronic kidney diseases; hypertension; pediatrics

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