Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003734; PMCID: PMC10097486


BACKGROUND: Biologic medications are recommended for treatment of moderately-to-severely active Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in children. However, many patients require sequential biologic treatment because of nonresponse or loss of response to the initial biologic.

METHODS: We analyzed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) data from the ImproveCareNow Network registry between May 2006 and September 2016, including time to biologic initiation, choice of first subsequent biologics, biologic durability, and reasons for discontinuation.

RESULTS: Of 17,649 patients with IBD [CD: 12,410 (70%); UC: 5239 (30%)], 7585 (43%) were treated with a biologic agent before age 18 (CD: 50%; UC: 25%). Biologic treatment was more likely for CD than UC (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI: 2.8-3.2; P < 0.0001). First biologic agents for all patients were anti-tumor necrosis factor agents (88% infliximab, 12% adalimumab). Probability of remaining on the first biologic was significantly higher in CD than UC ( P < 0.0001). First biologics were discontinued because of loss of response (39%), intolerance (23%), and nonresponse (19%). In univariate analysis, factors associated with discontinuation of first and/or second biologics in CD include colonic-only disease, corticosteroid use, upper gastrointestinal tract involvement, and clinical and biochemical markers of severe disease. Biologic durability improved with later induction date.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with biologic medications is common in pediatric IBD. Patients with CD are more likely to receive biologics, receive biologics earlier in disease course, and remain on the first biologic longer than patients with UC. Multiple factors may predict biologic durability in children with IBD.

Journal Title

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Humans; Child; Adolescent; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Colitis, Ulcerative; Crohn Disease; Infliximab; Adalimumab; Biological Factors; Biological Products


Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Ulcerative Colitis; Crohn Disease; Infliximab; Adalimumab; Biological Factors; Biological Products


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited

Publisher's Link:,_Durability,_and_Risks_for_Discontinuation_of.4.aspx