Randomized Controlled Trial of Rise, A Community-Based Culturally Congruent Counseling Intervention to Support Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Black/African American Adults Living with HIV.

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DOI: 10.1007/s10461-022-03921-0; PMCID: PMC9673878


Structural inequities have led to HIV disparities, including relatively low antiretroviral therapy adherence and viral suppression rates among Black Americans living with HIV. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of Rise, a community-based culturally congruent adherence intervention, from January 2018 to December 2021 with 166 (85 intervention, 81 control) Black adults living with HIV in Los Angeles County, California [M (SD) = 49.0 (12.2) years-old; 76% male]. The intervention included one-on-one counseling sessions using basic Motivational Interviewing style to problem solve about adherence, as well as referrals to address unmet needs for social determinants of health (e.g., housing services, food assistance). Assessments included electronically monitored adherence; HIV viral load; and baseline, 7-month follow-up, and 13-month follow-up surveys of sociodemographic characteristics, HIV stigma, medical mistrust, and HIV-serostatus disclosure. Repeated-measures intention-to-treat regressions indicated that Rise led to significantly (two-fold) higher adherence likelihood, lower HIV stigmatizing beliefs, and reduced HIV-related medical mistrust. Effects on HIV viral suppression, internalized stigma, and disclosure were non-significant. Moreover, Rise was cost-effective based on established standards: The estimated cost per person to reach optimal adherence was $335 per 10% increase in adherence. Interventions like Rise, that are culturally tailored to the needs of Black populations, may be optimal for Black Americans living with HIV (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT03331978).

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AIDS and behavior





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MeSH Keywords

Adult; Female; Humans; Male; Anti-Retroviral Agents; Black or African American; Counseling; HIV Infections; Medication Adherence; Trust; Middle Aged


Adherence; Antiretroviral therapy; Black/African American; HIV; Motivational Interviewing; Randomized controlled trial

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