Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.3389/fcvm.2023.1155861; PMCID: PMC10272804


Many children and adolescents with congenital and acquired heart disease (CHD) are physically inactive and participate in an insufficient amount of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise. Although physical activity (PA) and exercise interventions are effective at improving short- and long-term physiological and psychosocial outcomes in youth with CHD, several barriers including resource limitations, financial costs, and knowledge inhibit widespread implementation and dissemination of these beneficial programs. New and developing eHealth, mHealth, and remote monitoring technologies offer a potentially transformative and cost-effective solution to increase access to PA and exercise programs for youth with CHD, yet little has been written on this topic. In this review, a cardiac exercise therapeutics (CET) model is presented as a systematic approach to PA and exercise, with assessment and testing guiding three sequential PA and exercise intervention approaches of progressive intensity and resource requirements: (1) PA and exercise promotion within a clinical setting; (2) unsupervised exercise prescription; and (3) medically supervised fitness training intervention (i.e., cardiac rehabilitation). Using the CET model, the goal of this review is to summarize the current evidence describing the application of novel technologies within CET in populations of children and adolescents with CHD and introduce potential future applications of these technologies with an emphasis on improving equity and access to patients in low-resource settings and underserved communities.

Journal Title

Front Cardiovasc Med



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cardiac rehabilitation; exercise prescription; pediatric cardiology; technology; telehealth; wearable devices


Grant support

DAW is supported by NIH and NHLBI (K23HL159325). Funding for open access journal fees was received from Children's Mercy Kansas City. JEH is supported by the Pediatric Heart Network Scholars Program subgrant (U24HL135691). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Publisher's Link: