Iodine Intake From Diet and Supplements and Urinary Iodine Concentration in a Cohort of Pregnant Women in the United States.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.ajcnut.2023.04.005


BACKGROUND: The DRI Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) in pregnancy for Iodine (I), an essential nutrient for fetal neurodevelopment, is 160 μg/d. Supplementation with 150 μg/d I/day is recommended during pregnancy, however, neither dietary intake or the combination of diet and supplement intake has been reported in US pregnant women.

OBJECTIVE: Determine iodine intake from diet and supplements and iodine status in pregnancy by urinary iodine concentration in a large cohort of pregnant women.

DESIGN: Pregnant women (n=750) completed the Diet History Questionnaire 2.0 from the National Institute of Cancer or multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and identified their prenatal supplement(s). Dietary iodine intake was estimated using the USDA, FDA and ODS-NIH Database for the Iodine Content of Common Foods at enrollment, supplemental iodine intake throughout the study using content databases, and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) by the modified Sandell-Kolthoff reaction in samples collected between 14-20 weeks gestation (n=966).

RESULTS: The median intake of iodine from diet was 108.8 μg/d, and 63% (473/750) were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). Furthermore, 65% (529/818) took a supplement containing iodine, however, only 32% (259/818) took ≥150 μg/d. Median intake increased to 188.5 μg/d with the inclusion of I from supplements, however , 41% (380/925) remained below the EAR even after supplementation suggesting inadequate intake in nearly half of the cohort. A similar 48% (467/966) had UIC ≤150 μg/L.

CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of iodine status by UIC and intake of iodine from diet and supplements support a high prevalence of iodine insufficiency during pregnancy in this large cohort of US women.

Journal Title

The American journal of clinical nutrition





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MeSH Keywords

Female; Pregnancy; Humans; United States; Iodine; Pregnant Women; Diet; Dietary Supplements; Nutritional Status


Iodine; dietary iodine intake; pregnancy; supplemental iodine; urinary iodine concentration

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