The Development and Initial Validation of Items to Assess Parent Fear of Nighttime Hypoglycemia.

Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsad029


OBJECTIVE: Parents of youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are fearful their children will experience nighttime hypoglycemia. Currently, the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey for Parents (HFS-P) lacks items that specifically assess parents' nighttime fear. This study aimed to fill this gap by rigorously identifying new items to specifically assess parent fear of nighttime hypoglycemia and then examine the psychometric properties of the revised Hypoglycemia Fear Survey for Parents including Nighttime Fear (HFS-P-NF).

METHODS: For Phase 1, we recruited 10 pediatric diabetes providers and 15 parents/caregivers of youth with T1D to generate items related to fear of nighttime hypoglycemia. For Phase 2, we recruited an additional 20 parents/caregivers to pilot-test the newly generated items. For Phase 3, we recruited another 165 parents/caregivers to evaluate structural validity via confirmatory factor analyses, reliability, and content validity of the revised HFS-P-NF.

RESULTS: In Phase 1, we generated 54 items. In Phase 2, we removed 34 items due to violations of distributional normality and nonsignificant correlations. In Phase 3, a four-factor model reflecting behaviors maintaining high glucose, helplessness, negative social consequences, and nighttime worries was the best fitting model for the HFS-P-NF. The new items demonstrated strong internal consistency (α = 0.96) and strong to moderate relationships with criterion and content validity measures.

CONCLUSION: The current study provides initial evidence of validity and reliability for new items on the HFS-P-NF that broadened the conceptualization of parent fear of nighttime hypoglycemia. These findings are important to clinicians who may consider screening for parent fear of nighttime hypoglycemia more comprehensively.

Journal Title

Journal of pediatric psychology





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Humans; Child; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Reproducibility of Results; Hypoglycemia; Fear; Parents; Surveys and Questionnaires


anxiety; hypoglycemia; measure validation; parents and caregivers; type 1 diabetes

Library Record