Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with neonatal neurobehavioral profiles in the ECHO Program.
BACKGROUND: Single-cohort studies have identified distinct neurobehavioral profiles that are associated with prenatal and neonatal factors based on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). We examined socioeconomic, medical, and substance use variables as predictors of NNNS profiles in a multi-cohort study of preterm and term-born infants with different perinatal exposures.
METHODS: We studied 1112 infants with a neonatal NNNS exam from the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) consortium. We used latent profile analysis to characterize infant neurobehavioral profiles and generalized estimating equations to determine predictors of NNNS profiles.
RESULTS: Six distinct neonatal neurobehavioral profiles were identified, including two dysregulated profiles: a hypo-aroused profile (16%) characterized by lethargy, hypotonicity, and nonoptimal reflexes; and a hyper-aroused profile (6%) characterized by high arousal, excitability, and stress, with low regulation and poor movement quality. Infants in the hypo-aroused profile were more likely to be male, have younger mothers, and have mothers who were depressed prenatally. Infants in the hyper-aroused profile were more likely to be Hispanic/Latino and have mothers who were depressed or used tobacco prenatally.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified two dysregulated neurobehavioral profiles with distinct perinatal antecedents. Further understanding of their etiology could inform targeted interventions to promote positive developmental outcomes.
IMPACT: Prior research on predictors of neonatal neurobehavior have included single-cohort studies, which limits generalizability of findings. In a multi-cohort study of preterm and term-born infants, we found six distinct neonatal neurobehavioral profiles, with two profiles being identified as dysregulated. Hypo- and hyper-aroused neurobehavioral profiles had distinct perinatal antecedents. Understanding perinatal factors associated with dysregulated neurobehavior could help promote positive developmental outcomes.
Infant, Newborn; Infant; Child; Pregnancy; Female; Humans; Male; Cohort Studies; Parturition; Mental Disorders; Wakefulness; Mothers; Infant Behavior
Pregnancy; Cohort Studies; Parturition; Mental Disorders; Wakefulness; Mothers; Infant Behavior
Camerota M, McGowan EC, Aschner J, et al. Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with neonatal neurobehavioral profiles in the ECHO Program. Pediatr Res. 2023;94(2):762-770. doi:10.1038/s41390-023-02540-2