Variation in Early Anakinra Use and Short-Term Outcomes in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.

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DOI: 10.1002/art.42495


OBJECTIVE: Evidence regarding effectiveness of interleukin-1 receptor antagonism in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is lacking. We characterized variation in initial treatment with anakinra and evaluated cardiovascular outcomes associated with adding anakinra to standard initial therapy.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of MIS-C cases in a US surveillance registry from November 2020 to December 2021. Day 0 was the first calendar day of immunomodulatory treatment. Factors associated with initial anakinra use (days 0-1) were identified. We compared cases in patients ages 2-20 years receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and glucocorticoids versus anakinra plus IVIG and/or glucocorticoids on days 0-1, using inverse probability weighting to balance disease severity. Primary outcomes were vasopressor requirement on day 3 and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction on days 3-4. The secondary outcome was 50% reduction in C-reactive protein on day 3.

RESULTS: Among 1,516 MIS-C cases at 44 sites, 193 (13%) patients received anakinra alone or with other immunomodulators as initial treatment (range 0-74% by site). Site accounted for 59% of residual variance in anakinra use. After balancing disease severity, initial treatment with anakinra plus IVIG and/or glucocorticoids (n = 121) versus IVIG plus glucocorticoids (n = 389) was not associated with significant differences in vasopressor requirement (25.6% versus 20.1%, respectively; risk ratio [RR] 1.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.88-1.84]), ventricular dysfunction (33.7% versus 25.7%, respectively; RR 1.31 [95% CI 0.98-1.75]), or C-reactive protein reduction.

CONCLUSION: We identified substantial variation in initial anakinra use in a real-world population of children with MIS-C, but no average short-term improvement in cardiovascular outcomes associated with early addition of anakinra to IVIG and/or glucocorticoids compared to IVIG and glucocorticoids alone.

Journal Title

Arthritis Rheumatol





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MeSH Keywords

Child; Humans; Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein; Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; C-Reactive Protein; Stroke Volume; Retrospective Studies; Ventricular Function, Left; Glucocorticoids; Connective Tissue Diseases


Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein; Intravenous Immunoglobulins; C-Reactive Protein; Stroke Volume; Retrospective Studies; Left Ventricular Function; Glucocorticoids; Connective Tissue Diseases

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