Serum renin and prorenin concentrations predict severe persistent acute kidney injury and mortality in pediatric septic shock.
BACKGROUND: Studies in critically ill adults demonstrate associations between serum renin concentrations (a proposed surrogate for renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system dysregulation) and poor outcomes, but data in critically ill children are lacking. We assessed serum renin + prorenin concentrations in children with septic shock to determine their predictive ability for acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality.
METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational study of children aged 1 week to 18 years admitted to 14 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with septic shock and residual serum available for renin + prorenin measurement. Primary outcomes were development of severe persistent AKI (≥ KDIGO stage 2 for ≥ 48 h) in the first week and 28-day mortality.
RESULTS: Among 233 patients, day 1 median renin + prorenin concentration was 3436 pg/ml (IQR 1452-6567). Forty-two (18%) developed severe persistent AKI and 32 (14%) died. Day 1 serum renin + prorenin predicted severe persistent AKI with an AUROC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84, p < 0.0001; optimal cutoff 6769 pg/ml) and mortality with an AUROC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.69-0.89, p < 0.0001; optimal cutoff 6521 pg/ml). Day 3/day 1 (D3:D1) renin + prorenin ratio had an AUROC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.63-0.84, p < 0.001) for mortality. On multivariable regression, day 1 renin + prorenin > optimal cutoff retained associations with severe persistent AKI (aOR 6.8, 95% CI 3.0-15.8, p < 0.001) and mortality (aOR 6.9, 95% CI 2.2-20.9, p < 0.001). Similarly, D3:D1 renin + prorenin > optimal cutoff was associated with mortality (aOR 7.6, 95% CI 2.5-23.4, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Children with septic shock have very elevated serum renin + prorenin concentrations on PICU admission, and these concentrations, as well as their trend over the first 72 h, predict severe persistent AKI and mortality. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Adult; Humans; Child; Shock, Septic; Renin; Critical Illness; Intensive Care Units, Pediatric; Acute Kidney Injury; Sepsis
Acute kidney injury; Mortality; Pediatrics; Renin; Sepsis
Stanski NL, Pode Shakked N, Zhang B, et al. Serum renin and prorenin concentrations predict severe persistent acute kidney injury and mortality in pediatric septic shock. Pediatr Nephrol. 2023;38(9):3099-3108. doi:10.1007/s00467-023-05930-0