Botulinum toxin type A outcomes in infants with refractory congenital muscular torticollis.

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DOI: 10.3233/PRM-210088


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections in infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) who were refractory to conservative management.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study in which all subjects included were seen between 2004 and 2013 and were deemed appropriate for BoNT-A injections. A total of 291 patients were reviewed for inclusion in the study, and 134 patients met the inclusion criteria. Each child was injected with 15-30 units of BoNT-A into each of the following muscles: ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and scalene muscles. The key outcome and variable measurements analyzed included age at time of diagnosis, age at time of initiation of physical therapy, age at time of injection, total number of injection series utilized, muscles injected, and degrees of active and passive cervical rotation and lateral flexion pre- and post-injection. A successful outcome was documented if a child could achieve 45° of active lateral flexion and 80° of active cervical rotation post-injection. Secondary variables including sex, age at time of injection, number of injection series utilized, surgery required, adverse effects of botulinum toxin, presence of plagiocephaly, side of torticollis, orthosis used, presence of hip dysplasia, skeletal anomalies, complications during pregnancy or birth, and any other pertinent information regarding the delivery were also measured.

RESULTS: Based on this criteria, 82 children (61%) had successful outcomes. However, only four of the 134 patients required surgical correction.

CONCLUSION: BoNT-A may be an effective and safe method for treatment in refractory cases of congenital muscular torticollis.

Journal Title

J Pediatr Rehabil Med





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MeSH Keywords

Child; Humans; Infant; Torticollis; Botulinum Toxins, Type A; Retrospective Studies; Injections


Torticollis; nerve block; pediatrics; therapeutics

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