DOI: 10.3390/cells12182295; PMCID: PMC10529032
Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection continues to pose a significant healthcare burden. HIV co-infection during TB predisposes the host to the reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI), worsening disease conditions and mortality. There is a lack of biomarkers of LTBI reactivation and/or immune-related transcriptional signatures to distinguish active TB from LTBI and predict TB reactivation upon HIV co-infection. Characterizing individual cells using next-generation sequencing-based technologies has facilitated novel biological discoveries about infectious diseases, including TB and HIV pathogenesis. Compared to the more conventional sequencing techniques that provide a bulk assessment, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) can reveal complex and new cell types and identify more high-resolution cellular heterogeneity. This review will summarize the progress made in defining the immune atlas of TB and HIV infections using scRNA-seq, including host-pathogen interactions, heterogeneity in HIV pathogenesis, and the animal models employed to model disease. This review will also address the tools needed to bridge the gap between disease outcomes in single infection vs. co-infection. Finally, it will elaborate on the translational benefits of single-cell sequencing in TB/HIV diagnosis in humans.
Animals; Humans; Coinfection; HIV Infections; Transcriptome; Gene Expression Profiling; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
TB/HIV co-infection; biomarkers; latent TB infection; single cell analysis
Kulkarni S, Endsley JJ, Lai Z, Bradley T, Sharan R. Single-Cell Transcriptomics of Mtb/HIV Co-Infection. Cells. 2023;12(18):2295. Published 2023 Sep 17. doi:10.3390/cells12182295