Validation of a prediction system for risk of kidney allograft failure in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: An international observational study.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.ajt.2023.07.004


Predicting long-term kidney allograft failure is an unmet need for clinical care and clinical trial optimization in children. We aimed to validate a kidney allograft failure risk prediction system in a large international cohort of pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Patients from 20 centers in Europe and the United States, transplanted between 2004 and 2017, were included. Allograft assessment included estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, circulating antihuman leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibody, and kidney allograft histology. Individual predictions of allograft failure were calculated using the integrative box (iBox) system. Prediction performances were assessed using discrimination and calibration. The allograft evaluations were performed in 706 kidney transplant recipients at a median time of 9.1 (interquartile range, 3.3-19.2) months posttransplant; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 68.7 ± 28.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, and median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was 0.1 (0.0-0.4) g/g, and 134 (19.0%) patients had antihuman leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies. The iBox exhibited accurate calibration and discrimination for predicting the outcomes up to 10 years after evaluation, with a C-index of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.87). This study confirms the generalizability of the iBox to predict long-term kidney allograft failure in children, with performances similar to those reported in adults. These results support the use of the iBox to improve patient monitoring and facilitate clinical trials in children.

Journal Title

American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons





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MeSH Keywords

Adult; Humans; Child; United States; Kidney Transplantation; Creatinine; Transplantation, Homologous; Kidney; Renal Insufficiency; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Transplant Recipients; Allografts


Banff classification; allograft failure; children; kidney transplantation; predictive model

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