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DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000001215; PMCID: PMC10564071


OBJECTIVE: This study investigated outcomes of pharmacogenetic testing of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) referred to a precision medicine clinic and explored associations between patient characteristics and pharmacogenomic testing results.

METHODS: Records for patients diagnosed with ASD and subsequently referred to a pediatric hospital's precision medicine clinic between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020, were reviewed. Pharmacogenetic testing results were abstracted focusing on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. In addition, we compiled counts of patients' co-occurring diagnoses, histories of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), previously trialed ineffective medications, and previous psychiatric medication changes. Logistic regression models were fit to examine CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 metabolizer status as functions of patient demographics and prereferral medication histories.

RESULTS: Of 202 patients (mean age = 12.18 yrs), 66% were referred to precision medicine because of poor medication response. Among patients with pharmacogenomic testing results for CYP2D6, 9% were classified as poor metabolizers; among patients with results for CYP2C19, 10% were classified as rapid/ultrarapid metabolizers. Patient demographics and medication response history did not predict pharmacogenomic results. However, the number of co-occurring diagnoses positively predicted the number of nonpsychiatric ADRs and a higher probability of CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status; moreover, nonpsychiatric ADRs positively predicted CYP2C19 rapid/ultrarapid metabolizer status.

CONCLUSION: In one of the largest reported samples of youth with ASD clinically referred for pharmacogenetic testing, we observed high variability in medication response and yield for actionable results. Our findings suggest potential clinical utility for pharmacogenetic testing and introduce possible clinical profiles associated with metabolizer status.

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Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP





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