A novel haplotype composed of two non-coding variants, CYP2C18 NM_000772.3:c.*31T (rs2860840) and NM_000772.2:c.819+2182G (rs11188059), referred to as "CYP2C:TG," was recently associated with ultrarapid metabolism of various CYP2C19 substrates. As the underlying mechanism and clinical relevance of this effect remain uncertain, we analyzed existing in vivo and in vitro data to determine the magnitude of the CYP2C:TG haplotype effect. We assessed variability in pharmacokinetics of CYP2C19 substrates, including citalopram, sertraline, voriconazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole in 222 healthy volunteers receiving one of these six drugs. We also determined its impact on CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19 protein abundance in 135 human liver tissue samples, and on CYP2C18/CYP2C19 activity in vitro using N-desmethyl atomoxetine formation. No effects were observed according to CYP2C:TG haplotype or to CYP2C19*1+TG alleles (i.e., CYP2C19 alleles containing the CYP2C:TG haplotype). In contrast, CYP2C19 intermediate (e.g., CYP2C19*1/*2) and poor metabolizers (e.g., CYP2C19*2/*2) showed significantly higher exposure in vivo, lower CYP2C19 protein abundance in human liver microsomes, and lower activity in vitro compared with normal, rapid (i.e., CYP2C19*1/*17), and ultrarapid metabolizers (i.e., CYP2C19*17/*17). Moreover, a tendency toward lower exposure was observed in ultrarapid metabolizers compared with rapid metabolizers and normal metabolizers. Furthermore, when the CYP2C19*17 allele was present, CYP2C18 protein abundance was increased suggesting that genetic variation in CYP2C19 may be relevant to the overall metabolism of certain drugs by regulating not only its expression levels, but also those of CYP2C18. Considering all available data, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence supporting clinical CYP2C:TG testing to inform drug therapy.
Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Zubiaur P, Soria-Chacartegui P, Boone EC, et al. Impact of CYP2C:TG Haplotype on CYP2C19 Substrates Clearance In Vivo, Protein Content, and In Vitro Activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2023;114(5):1033-1042. doi:10.1002/cpt.3012