DOI: 10.7759/cureus.45633; PMCID: PMC10588281
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus that is known to have a predilection for complications associated with the respiratory system. Although COVID-19 has a wide spectrum of manifestations, the pathophysiology of severe illness remains poorly understood but is thought to be associated with fulminant cytokine release. While severe complications secondary to COVID-19 in the pediatric population are considered rare, they do happen. Children with and without comorbidities have required intensive care unit admissions for respiratory distress and, more notably, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). While MIS-C is associated with hematologic complications, such as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathies, it is not associated with blood hemolysis. In this report, we describe a case of a 23-month-old previously healthy female, who presented with lethargy and positive COVID-19 PCR status. This case illustrates the rapid and fatal sequela caused by autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) from COVID-19. It stresses the importance of thorough workup and management of AIHA secondary to COVID-19 illness. Currently, there is limited understanding of AIHA from COVID-19 illness in children. Our aim is to describe this rare complication of COVID-19 illness in pediatric patients and discuss the best practices to manage it.
corticosteroid treatment; covid-19; mixed autoimmune hemolytic anemia; pediatric case; rituximab therapy
Kononowicz JE, Farhan Ali M, Palko W, Pyper S, Agasthya N. Rapidly Progressing Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in a Pediatric Patient With COVID-19. Cureus. 2023;15(9):e45633. Published 2023 Sep 20. doi:10.7759/cureus.45633