Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.3389/fped.2023.1260372; PMCID: PMC10619659


OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for persistent impairments after pediatric hospitalization for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

METHODS: Across 25 U.S. Overcoming COVID-19Network hospitals, we conducted a prospective cohort study of patients

RESULTS: Of 232 children with acute COVID-19, 71 (30.6%) had persistent symptoms and 50 (21.6%) had activity impairments at follow-up; for MIS-C (n = 241), 56 (23.2%) had persistent symptoms and 58 (24.1%) had activity impairments. In adjusted analyses of patients with acute COVID-19, receipt of mechanical ventilation was associated with persistent symptoms [aRR 1.83 (95% CI: 1.07, 3.13)] whereas obesity [aRR 2.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 4.51)] and greater organ system involvement [aRR 1.35 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.61)] were associated with activity impairment. For patients with MIS-C, having a pre-existing respiratory condition was associated with persistent symptoms [aRR 3.04 (95% CI: 1.70, 5.41)] whereas obesity [aRR 1.86 (95% CI: 1.09, 3.15)] and greater organ system involvement [aRR 1.26 (1.00, 1.58)] were associated with activity impairments.

DISCUSSION: Among patients hospitalized, nearly one in three hospitalized with acute COVID-19 and one in four hospitalized with MIS-C had persistent impairments for ≥2 months post-hospitalization. Persistent impairments were associated with more severe illness and underlying health conditions, identifying populations to target for follow-up.

Journal Title

Front Pediatr



First Page


Last Page



COVID-19; COVID-19 post-intensive care syndrome; MIS-C; SARS-CoV-2; critical care outcomes; multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children; pediatrics; post-acute COVID-19 syndrome


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Publisher's Link: