Effect Modifiers of the Association of High-Flow Nasal Cannula and Bronchiolitis Length of Stay.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy for hospitalized children with bronchiolitis is associated with a longer length of stay (LOS) when used outside of the ICU. We sought to explore the association between HFNC and LOS to identify if demographic and clinical factors may modify the effect of HFNC usage on LOS.
METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we used a combination of hospital records and the Pediatric Health Information System. We included encounters from September 1, 2018 to March 31, 2020 for patientscovariates, including fixed main effects and interaction terms between HFNC and other factors.
RESULTS: Of 8060 included patients, 2179 (27.0%) received HFNC during admission. Age group, weight, complex chronic condition, initial tachypnea, initial desaturation, and ICU services were significantly associated with LOS. The effect of HFNC on LOS differed among hospitals (P < .001), with the estimated increase in LOS ranging from 32% to 139%. The effect of HFNC on LOS was modified by age group, initial desaturation, and ICU services, with 1- to 6-month-old infants, patients without initial desaturation, and patients without ICU services having the highest association between HFNC and LOS, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified multiple potential effect modifiers for the relationship between HFNC and LOS. The authors of future prospective studies should investigate the effect of HFNC usage on LOS in non-ICU patients without documented desaturation.
Infant; Humans; Child; Child, Preschool; Cannula; Length of Stay; Retrospective Studies; Prospective Studies; Oxygen Inhalation Therapy; Bronchiolitis
Cannula; Length of Stay; Retrospective Studies; Prospective Studies; Oxygen Inhalation Therapy; Bronchiolitis
Winer JC, Richardson T, Berg KJ, et al. Effect Modifiers of the Association of High-Flow Nasal Cannula and Bronchiolitis Length of Stay. Hosp Pediatr. 2023;13(11):1018-1027. doi:10.1542/hpeds.2023-007295