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DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2023.116947


BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited multisystem disorder predominantly affecting the mineralization of bones and teeth. HPP is caused by pathogenic variants in ALPL, which encodes tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Variants of uncertain significance (VUS) cause diagnostic delay and uncertainty amongst patients and health care providers.

RESULTS: The ALPL gene variant database ( is an open-access archive for interpretation of the clinical significance of variants reported in ALPL. The database contains coding and non-coding variants, including single nucleotide variants, insertions/deletions and structural variants affecting coding or non-coding sequences of ALPL. Each variant in the database is displayed with details explaining the corresponding pathogenicity, and all reported genotypes and phenotypes, including references. In 2021, the ALPL gene variant classification project was established to reclassify VUS and continuously assess and update genetic, phenotypic, and functional variant information in the database. For this purpose, the database provides a unique submission system for clinicians, geneticists, genetic counselors, and researchers to submit VUS within ALPL for classification. An international, multidisciplinary consortium of HPP experts has been established to reclassify the submitted VUS using a multi-step process adhering to the stringent ACMG/AMP variant classification guidelines. These steps include a clinical phenotype assessment, deep literature research including artificial intelligence technology, molecular genetic assessment, and in-vitro functional testing of variants in a co-transfection model to measure ALP residual activity.

CONCLUSION: This classification project and the ALPL gene variant database will serve the global medical community, widen the genotypic and phenotypic HPP spectrum by reporting and characterizing new ALPL variants based on ACMG/AMP criteria and thus facilitate improved genetic counseling and medical decision-making for affected patients and families. The project may also serve as a gold standard framework for multidisciplinary collaboration for variant interpretation in other rare diseases.

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MeSH Keywords

Humans; Alkaline Phosphatase; Mutation; Artificial Intelligence; Delayed Diagnosis; Hypophosphatasia


ACMG; Alkaline phosphatase; Hypophosphatasia; Reclassification; Vitamin B6.


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