Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1007/s00198-023-06843-2; PMCID: PMC10786745


Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inborn error of metabolism that presents variably in both age of onset and severity. HPP is caused by pathogenic variants in the ALPL gene, resulting in low activity of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Patients with HPP tend have a similar pattern of elevation of natural substrates that can be used to aid in diagnosis. No formal diagnostic guidelines currently exist for the diagnosis of this condition in children, adolescents, or adults. The International HPP Working Group is a comprised of a multidisciplinary team of experts from Europe and North America who have expertise in the diagnosis and management of patients with HPP. This group reviewed 93 papers through a Medline, Medline In-Process, and Embase search for the terms "HPP" and "hypophosphatasia" between 2005 and 2020 and that explicitly address either the diagnosis of HPP in children, clinical manifestations of HPP in children, or both. Two reviewers independently evaluated each full-text publication for eligibility and studies were included if they were narrative reviews or case series/reports that concerned diagnosis of pediatric HPP or included clinical aspects of patients diagnosed with HPP. This review focused on 15 initial clinical manifestations that were selected by a group of clinical experts.The highest agreement in included literature was for pathogenic or likely pathogenic ALPL variant, elevation of natural substrates, and early loss of primary teeth. The highest prevalence was similar, including these same three parameters and including decreased bone mineral density. Additional parameters had less agreement and were less prevalent. These were organized into three major and six minor criteria, with diagnosis of HPP being made when two major or one major and two minor criteria are present.

Journal Title

Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Adult; Child; Humans; Adolescent; Hypophosphatasia; Alkaline Phosphatase; Europe; Prevalence; Mutation


ALPL; Alkaline phosphatase; HPP diagnosis in children; hypophosphatasia; osteomalacia; rickets


This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits any non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Publisher's Link: