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DOI: 10.1038/s41467-024-44980-2; PMCID: PMC10803329


Rare DNA alterations that cause heritable diseases are only partially resolvable by clinical next-generation sequencing due to the difficulty of detecting structural variation (SV) in all genomic contexts. Long-read, high fidelity genome sequencing (HiFi-GS) detects SVs with increased sensitivity and enables assembling personal and graph genomes. We leverage standard reference genomes, public assemblies (n = 94) and a large collection of HiFi-GS data from a rare disease program (Genomic Answers for Kids, GA4K, n = 574 assemblies) to build a graph genome representing a unified SV callset in GA4K, identify common variation and prioritize SVs that are more likely to cause genetic disease (MAF < 0.01). Using graphs, we obtain a higher level of reproducibility than the standard reference approach. We observe over 200,000 SV alleles unique to GA4K, including nearly 1000 rare variants that impact coding sequence. With improved specificity for rare SVs, we isolate 30 candidate SVs in phenotypically prioritized genes, including known disease SVs. We isolate a novel diagnostic SV in KMT2E, demonstrating use of personal assemblies coupled with pangenome graphs for rare disease genomics. The community may interrogate our pangenome with additional assemblies to discover new SVs within the allele frequency spectrum relevant to genetic diseases.

Journal Title

Nat Commun





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MeSH Keywords

Humans; Rare Diseases; Reproducibility of Results; Chromosome Mapping; Alleles; Genomics


Rare Diseases; Reproducibility of Results; Chromosome Mapping; Alleles; Genomics


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