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DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciad534; PMCID: PMC10810702


BACKGROUND: Our previous study established a 2-dose regimen of high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine (HD-TIV) to be immunogenically superior compared to a 2-dose regimen of standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine (SD-QIV) in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. However, the durability of immunogenicity and the role of time post-HCT at immunization as an effect modifier are unknown.

METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared HD-TIV to SD-QIV in children 3-17 years old who were 3-35 months post-allogeneic HCT, with each formulation administered twice, 28-42 days apart. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers were measured at baseline, 28-42 days following each dose, and 138-222 days after the second dose. Using linear mixed effects models, we estimated adjusted geometric mean HAI titer ratios (aGMR: HD-TIV/SD-QIV) to influenza antigens. Early and late periods were defined as 3-5 and 6-35 months post-HCT, respectively.

RESULTS: During 3 influenza seasons (2016-2019), 170 participants were randomized to receive HD-TIV (n = 85) or SD-QIV (n = 85). HAI titers maintained significant elevations above baseline for both vaccine formulations, although the relative immunogenic benefit of HD-TIV to SD-QIV waned during the study. A 2-dose series of HD-TIV administered late post-HCT was associated with higher GMTs compared to the early post-HCT period (late group: A/H1N1 aGMR = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.14-4.08]; A/H3N2 aGMR = 3.20, 95% CI = [1.60-6.39]; B/Victoria aGMR = 1.91, 95% CI = [1.01-3.60]; early group: A/H1N1 aGMR = 1.03, 95% CI = [0.59-1.80]; A/H3N2 aGMR = 1.23, 95% CI = [0.68-2.25]; B/Victoria aGMR = 1.06, 95% CI = [0.56-2.03]).

CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of HD-TIV were more immunogenic than SD-QIV, especially when administered ≥6 months post-HCT. Both groups maintained higher titers compared to baseline throughout the season.


Journal Title

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America





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MeSH Keywords

Humans; Child; Child, Preschool; Adolescent; Influenza Vaccines; Influenza, Human; Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Vaccines, Inactivated; Antibody Formation; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Transplant Recipients; Antibodies, Viral; Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests


high dose; influenza; pediatrics; stem cell recipients; vaccination


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