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DOI: 10.1007/s00198-023-06844-1; PMCID: PMC10866785


BACKGROUND: This manuscript provides a summary of the current evidence to support the criteria for diagnosing a child or adult with hypophosphatasia (HPP). The diagnosis of HPP is made on the basis of integrating clinical features, laboratory profile, radiographic features of the condition, and DNA analysis identifying the presence of a pathogenic variant of the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL). Often, the diagnosis of HPP is significantly delayed in both adults and children, and updated diagnostic criteria are required to keep pace with our evolving understanding regarding the relationship between ALPL genotype and associated HPP clinical features.

METHODS: An International Working Group (IWG) on HPP was formed, comprised of a multidisciplinary team of experts from Europe and North America with expertise in the diagnosis and management of patients with HPP. Methodologists (Romina Brignardello-Petersen and Gordon Guyatt) and their team supported the IWG and conducted systematic reviews following the GRADE methodology, and this provided the basis for the recommendations.

RESULTS: The IWG completed systematic reviews of the literature, including case reports and expert opinion papers describing the phenotype of patients with HPP. The published data are largely retrospective and include a relatively small number of patients with this rare condition. It is anticipated that further knowledge will lead to improvement in the quality of genotype-phenotype reporting in this condition.

CONCLUSION: Following consensus meetings, agreement was reached regarding the major and minor criteria that can assist in establishing a clinical diagnosis of HPP in adults and children.

Journal Title

Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA





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MeSH Keywords

Adult; Child; Humans; Hypophosphatasia; Mutation; Retrospective Studies; Alkaline Phosphatase; Genotype; Phenotype


Diagnosis; Hypophosphatasia; Major criteria; Minor criteria.


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