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DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.55707; PMCID: PMC10865156


IMPORTANCE: There are an increasing number of medications with a high level of evidence for pharmacogenetic-guided dosing (PGx drugs). Knowledge of the prevalence of dispensings of PGx drugs and their associated genes may allow hospitals and clinical laboratories to determine which pharmacogenetic tests to implement.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of outpatient dispensings of PGx drugs among Medicaid-insured youths, determine genes most frequently associated with PGx drug dispenses, and describe characteristics of youths who were dispensed at least 1 PGx drug.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This serial cross-sectional study includes data from 2011 to 2019 among youths aged 0 to 17 years in the Marketscan Medicaid database. Data were analyzed from August to December 2022.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: PGx drugs were defined as any medication with level A evidence as determined by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC). The number of unique youths dispensed each PGx drug in each year was determined. PGx drugs were grouped by their associated genes for which there was CPIC level A evidence to guide dosing, and a dispensing rate (No. of PGx drugs/100 000 youths) was determined for each group for the year 2019. Demographics were compared between youths dispensed at least 1 PGx drug and those not dispensed any PGx drugs.

RESULTS: The number of Medicaid-insured youths queried ranged by year from 2 078 683 youths in 2011 to 4 641 494 youths in 2017, including 4 126 349 youths (median [IQR] age, 9 [5-13] years; 2 129 926 males [51.6%]) in 2019. The proportion of Medicaid-insured youths dispensed PGx drugs increased from 289 709 youths (13.9%; 95% CI, 13.8%-14.0%) in 2011 to 740 072 youths (17.9%; 95% CI, 17.9%-18.0%) in 2019. Genes associated with the most frequently dispensed medications were CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 (9197.0 drugs [95% CI, 9167.7-9226.3 drugs], 8731.5 drugs [95% CI, 8702.5-8759.5 drugs], and 3426.8 drugs [95% CI, 3408.1-3443.9 drugs] per 100 000 youths, respectively). There was a higher percentage of youths with at least 1 chronic medical condition among youths dispensed at least 1 PGx drug (510 445 youths [69.0%; 95% CI, 68.8%-69.1%]) than among 3 386 277 youths dispensed no PGx drug (1 381 544 youths [40.8%; 95% CI, 40.7%-40.9%) (P < .001) in 2019.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, there was an increasing prevalence of dispensings for PGx drugs. This finding suggests that pharmacogenetic testing of specific drug-gene pairs should be considered for frequently prescribed PGx drugs and their implicated genes.

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JAMA Netw Open





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MeSH Keywords

Male; United States; Humans; Adolescent; Child, Preschool; Child; Pharmacogenomic Testing; Cross-Sectional Studies; Medicaid; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6; Databases, Factual


Pharmacogenomic Testing; Cross-Sectional Studies; Medicaid; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6; Factual Databases


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