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DOI: 10.1111/cts.13777; PMCID: PMC10955605


The phenotypical manifestations of asthma among children are diverse and exhibit varying responses to therapeutic interventions. There is a need to develop objective biomarkers to improve the characterization of allergic and inflammatory responses relevant to asthma to predict therapeutic treatment responses. We have previously investigated histamine iontophoresis with laser Doppler flowmetry (HILD) as a potential surrogate biomarker that characterizes histamine response and may be utilized to guide the treatment of allergic and inflammatory disease. We have identified intra-individual variability of HILD response type among children and adults with asthma and that HILD response type varied in association with racial classification. As laser Doppler flowimetry may be impacted by skin color, we aimed to further validate the HILD method by determining if skin color or tone is associated with observed HILD response type differences. We conducted an observational study utilizing quantification of skin color and tone obtained from photographs of the skin among participants during HILD assessments via the RGB color model. We compared RGB values across racial, ethnic, and HILD response type via the Kruskal-Wallis test and calculated Kendall rank correlation coefficient to evaluate the relationship between RGB composite scores and HILD pharmacodynamic measures. We observed that RGB scores differed among racial groups and histamine response phenotypes (p < 0.05). However, there was a lack of correlation between the RGB composite score and HILD pharmacodynamic measures (r values 0.1, p > 0.05). These findings suggest that skin color may not impact HILD response variations, necessitating further research to understand previously observed differences across identified racial groups.

Journal Title

Clin Transl Sci





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MeSH Keywords

Adult; Child; Humans; Histamine; Iontophoresis; Skin Pigmentation; Skin; Laser-Doppler Flowmetry; Asthma; Biomarkers


Histamine; Iontophoresis; Skin Pigmentation; Skin; Laser-Doppler Flowmetry; Asthma; Biomarkers


This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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