Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1002/jpn3.12183


OBJECTIVES: No study has explored whether availability of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is adequate and equitable across US children's hospitals. We hypothesized that ERCP availability and utilization differs by geography and patient factors.

METHODS: Healthcare encounter data from 2009 to 2019 on children with pancreatic and biliary diseases from the Pediatric Health Information System were analyzed. ERCP availability was defined as treatment at a hospital that performed pediatric ERCP during the year of service.

RESULTS: From 2009 to 2019, 37,946 children (88,420 encounters) had a potential pancreatic or biliary indication for ERCP; 7066 ERCPs were performed. The commonest pancreatic diagnoses leading to ERCP were chronic (47.2%) and acute pancreatitis (43.2%); biliary diagnoses were calculus (68.3%) and obstruction (14.8%). No ERCP was available for 25.0% of pancreatic encounters and 8.1% of biliary encounters. In multivariable analysis, children with public insurance, rural residence, or of Black race were less likely to have pancreatic ERCP availability; those with rural residence or Asian race were less likely to have biliary ERCP availability. Black children or those with public insurance were less likely to undergo pancreatic ERCP where available. Among encounters for calculus or obstruction, those of Black race or admitted to hospitals in the West were less likely to undergo ERCP when available.

CONCLUSIONS: One-in-four children with pancreatic disorders and one-in-12 with biliary disorders may have limited access to ERCP. We identified racial and geographic disparities in availability and utilization of ERCP. Further studies are needed to understand these differences to ensure equitable care.

Journal Title

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Humans; Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde; Child; Hospitals, Pediatric; Male; Female; United States; Health Services Accessibility; Child, Preschool; Adolescent; Infant; Pancreatic Diseases; Healthcare Disparities; Biliary Tract Diseases; Retrospective Studies


health equity; hepatobiliary; pancreatitis; pediatric


This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

Publisher's Link:

Included in

Pediatrics Commons