Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1002/pbc.31006


BACKGROUND: Myeloid neoplasms account for 50% of cases of pediatric leukemias in infants. Approximately 25%-50% of patients with newborn leukemia have cutaneous extramedullary disease (EMD). In less than 10% of patients, aleukemic leukemia cutis or isolated extramedullary disease with cutaneous involvement (cEMD) occurs when skin lesions appear prior to bone marrow involvement and systemic symptoms. Interestingly, in acute myeloid leukemia with cutaneous EMD (AML-cEMD) and cEMD, spontaneous remissions have been reported.

METHOD: This is a multicentric retrospective cohort study aiming to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcome of infants with either cEMD or presence of cutaneous disease with involvement of the bone marrow (AML-cEMD). This study included patients born between 1990 and 2018 from Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States, diagnosed between 0 and 6 months of life with cEMD or AML-cEMD. Descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier method, and log rank test were applied.

RESULTS: The cohort consisted of n = 50 patients, including 42 AML-cEMD and eight cEMD patients. The most common genetic mutation found was a KMT2A rearrangement (n = 26, 52%). Overall 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 66% [confidence interval (CI): 51-78] and 75% [CI: 60-85], respectively. In two patients, complete spontaneous remission occurred without any therapy. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 25% of cEMD patients. No difference in outcomes was observed between the AML-cEMD and cEMD groups, but none of the latter patients included in the study died. KMT2A rearrangements were not associated with poorer prognosis.

CONCLUSION: In the largest cohort to date, our study describes the characteristics of infants with cutaneous involvement of myeloid neoplasms including cytomolecular findings and survival rates. Further prospective biologic and clinical studies of these infants with myeloid neoplasms will be required to individualize therapy for this rare patient population.

Journal Title

Pediatric blood & cancer





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Humans; Retrospective Studies; Female; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute; Infant; Male; Infant, Newborn; Skin Neoplasms; Follow-Up Studies; Survival Rate; Prognosis


acute myeloid leukemia; aleukemic leukemia cutis; cutaneous infiltration; extramedullary disease; infants


This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

Publisher's Link: