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DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2024.2356637; PMCID: PMC11132556


BACKGROUND: Traditional medical education often lacks contextual experience, hindering students' ability to effectively apply theoretical knowledge in real-world scenarios. The integration of the metaverse into medical education holds great enormous promise for addressing educational disparities, particularly in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) accompanied by rapid technological advancements. This commentary paper aimed to address the potential of the metaverse in enhancing basic sciences education within the constraints faced by universities in LMICs. We also addressed learning design challenges by proposing fundamental design elements and a suggested conceptual framework for developing metaverse-based teaching methods.The goal is to assist educators and medical practitioners in comprehensivley understanding key factors in immersive teaching and learning.

DISCUSSION: By immersing medical students in virtual scenarios mimicking real medical settings and patient interactions, the metaverse enables practice in clinical decision-making, interpersonal skills, and exposure to complex medical situations in a controlled environment. These simulations can be customized to reflect local healthcare challenges, preparing medical students to tackle specific community needs. Various disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pharmacy, dentistry, and pathology, have begun leveraging the metaverse to offer immersive learning experiences, foster interdisciplinary collaborations, and facilitate authentic assessments. However, financial constraints pose a significant barrier to widespread adoption, particularly in resource-limited settings like LMICs. Addressing these challenges is crucial to realizing the full potential of metaverse technology in medical education.

CONCLUSION: The metaverse offers a promising solution for enhancing medical education by providing immersive, context-rich learning experiences. This paper proposes a conceptual framework and fundamental design elements to aid faculty educators and medical practitioners in effectively incorporating metaverse technology into their teaching methods, thus improving educational outcomes in LMICs.

Journal Title

Annals of medicine





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MeSH Keywords

Humans; Developing Countries; Education, Medical; Students, Medical; Learning; Curriculum


ADDIE model; Metaverse; augmented reality; authentic assessment; instructional design; lower middle-income countries; medical education; metaverse learning design; universal design of learning; virtual reality


This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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