ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Urinary Tract Infection-Child: 2023 Update.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.jacr.2024.02.025


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequent infection in childhood. The diagnosis is usually made by history and physical examination and confirmed by urine analysis. Cystitis is infection or inflammation confined to the bladder, whereas pyelonephritis is infection or inflammation of kidneys. Pyelonephritis can cause renal scarring, which is the most severe long-term sequela of UTI and can lead to accelerated nephrosclerosis, leading to hypertension and chronic renal failure. The role of imaging is to guide treatment by identifying patients who are at high risk to develop recurrent UTIs or renal scarring. This document provides initial imaging guidelines for children presenting with first febrile UTI with appropriate response to medical management, atypical or recurrent febrile UTI, and follow-up imaging for children with established vesicoureteral reflux. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision process support the systematic analysis of the medical literature from peer reviewed journals. Established methodology principles such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE are adapted to evaluate the evidence. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User Manual provides the methodology to determine the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where peer reviewed literature is lacking or equivocal, experts may be the primary evidentiary source available to formulate a recommendation.

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J Am Coll Radiol





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MeSH Keywords

Humans; Urinary Tract Infections; Societies, Medical; United States; Child; Evidence-Based Medicine


AUC; Appropriateness Criteria; appropriate use criteria; fluoroscopy voiding cystourethrography; guidelines; ultrasound; urinary tract infection; vesicoureteral reflex; voiding urosonography

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