Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1007/s40618-023-02256-4; PMCID: PMC11142979


BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn error of metabolism with a variable presentation. We conducted a modified Delphi panel to obtain expert consensus on knowledge gaps regarding disease severity and progression in adult patients with HPP.

METHODS: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) with experience managing adult patients with HPP were recruited to participate in a 3-round Delphi panel (round 1: paper survey and 1:1 interview; rounds 2-3: email survey). Panelists rated the extent of their agreement with statements about disease severity and progression in adult patients with HPP. Consensus was defined as ≥ 80% agreement.

RESULTS: Ten HCPs completed round 1; nine completed rounds 2 and 3. Consensus was reached on 46/120 statements derived from steering committee input. Disease severity markers in adult patients with HPP can be bone-related (recurrent/poorly healing fractures, pseudo-fractures, metatarsal fractures, osteomalacia) or involve dentition or physiologic/functional manifestations (use of mobility devices/home modifications, abnormal gait, pain). Disease progression markers can include recurrent/poorly healing low-trauma fractures, development of ectopic calcifications, and/or impairment of functional activity. Panelists supported the development of a tool to help assess disease severity in the clinic and track changes in severity over time. Panelists also highlighted the role of a multidisciplinary team, centers with expertise, and the need to refer patients when disease severity is not clear.

CONCLUSIONS: These statements regarding disease severity, progression, and assessment methods address some knowledge gaps in adult patients with HPP and may be helpful for treating HCPs, although the small sample size affects the ability to generalize the healthcare provider experience.

Journal Title

Journal of endocrinological investigation





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Humans; Hypophosphatasia; Delphi Technique; Disease Progression; Consensus; Adult; Severity of Illness Index; United States; Female; Male; Health Personnel; Surveys and Questionnaires


Consensus; Delphi; Hypophosphatasia


This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Publisher's Link: