Sex and the Kidney Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters: Are Preclinical Drug Disposition Data Translatable to Humans?

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DOI: 10.1002/cpt.3277


Cross-species differences in drug transport and metabolism are linked to poor translation of preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicology data to humans, often resulting in the failure of new chemical entities (NCEs) during clinical drug development. Specifically, inaccurate prediction of renal clearance and renal accumulation of NCEs due to differential abundance of enzymes and transporters in kidneys can lead to differences in pharmacokinetics and toxicity between experimental animals and humans. We carried out liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based protein quantification of 78 membrane drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in the kidney membrane fractions of humans, rats, and mice for characterization of cross-species and sex-dependent differences. In general, majority of DMET proteins were higher in rodents than in humans. Significant cross-species differences were observed in 30 out of 33 membrane DMET proteins quantified in all three species. Although no significant sex-dependent differences were observed in humans, the abundance of 28 and 46 membrane proteins showed significant sex dependence in rats and mice, respectively. These cross-species and sex-dependent quantitative abundance data are valuable for gaining a mechanistic understanding of drug renal disposition and accumulation. Further, these data can also be integrated into systems pharmacology tools, such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, to enhance the interpretation of preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicological data.

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Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics





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MeSH Keywords

Animals; Humans; Male; Female; Kidney; Mice; Rats; Species Specificity; Membrane Transport Proteins; Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Sex Factors; Chromatography, Liquid; Pharmaceutical Preparations; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical


Kidney; Mice; Rats; Species Specificity; Membrane Transport Proteins; Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Sex Factors; Liquid Chromatography; Pharmaceutical Preparations; Preclinical Drug Evaluation

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