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PMCID: PMC4385520 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.05.019


OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify risk factors for mortality and morbidity during the Norwood hospitalization in newborn infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other single right ventricle anomalies enrolled in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial.

METHODS: Potential predictors for outcome included patient- and procedure-related variables and center volume and surgeon volume. Outcome variables occurring during the Norwood procedure and before hospital discharge or stage II procedure included mortality, end-organ complications, length of ventilation, and hospital length of stay. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed with bootstrapping to estimate reliability for mortality.

RESULTS: Analysis included 549 subjects prospectively enrolled from 15 centers; 30-day and hospital mortality were 11.5% (63/549) and 16.0% (88/549), respectively. Independent risk factors for both 30-day and hospital mortality included lower birth weight, genetic abnormality, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and open sternum on the day of the Norwood procedure. In addition, longer duration of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was a risk factor for 30-day mortality. Shunt type at the end of the Norwood procedure was not a significant risk factor for 30-day or hospital mortality. Independent risk factors for postoperative renal failure (n = 46), sepsis (n = 93), increased length of ventilation, and hospital length of stay among survivors included genetic abnormality, lower center/surgeon volume, open sternum, and post-Norwood operations.

CONCLUSIONS: Innate patient factors, ECMO, open sternum, and lower center/surgeon volume are important risk factors for postoperative mortality and/or morbidity during the Norwood hospitalization.

Journal Title

The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery





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MeSH Keywords

Blalock-Taussig Procedure; Disease-Free Survival; Heart Defects, Congenital; Heart Ventricles; Hemodynamics; Hospital Mortality; Humans; Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome; Infant Mortality; Infant, Newborn; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Length of Stay; Multivariate Analysis; North America; Norwood Procedures; Postoperative Complications; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; Ventricular Function