Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography is useful in the evaluation of patients with atrioventricular septal defects.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is useful in the evaluation of patients with atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD).
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in 3DE have enhanced its practicality. We assessed whether 3DE provided new information compared to 2DE among patients with AVSD.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 52 3DE datasets from 51 patients (median age: 4.6 years, range 0-30 years; median BSA: 0.6 m2, range 0.2-1.9 m2) with any type of AVSD during a 1-year period. 3DE findings were compared to 2DE and surgical reports. For each study, AVSD was classified by 2DE as one of the following: unrepaired balanced defect, repaired balanced defect with residual lesions, repaired balanced defect without residual lesions, or unbalanced defect. 3DE was graded as (1) Additive: 3DE resulted in a new finding or changed diagnosis; (2) Useful: While useful, 3DE did not result in new findings or changed diagnosis; or (3) Not useful.
RESULTS: 3DE on unrepaired balanced AVSD and repaired AVSD with residual lesions was more often additive/useful (33/36; 92%) than on repaired AVSD without residual lesions or unbalanced AVSD (9/16 (56%), P=0.009). 3DE was additive or useful in all three patients with unbalanced AVSD being considered for biventricular repair. Useful information obtained by 3DE included: precise characterization of mitral regurgitation and cleft leaflet, substrate for subaortic stenosis, valve anatomy, and presence and location of additional septal defects.
CONCLUSION: 3DE provides useful and additive information in unrepaired balanced AVSD, repaired AVSD with residual lesions, and unbalanced AVSD under consideration for biventricular repair.
Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
Adolescent; Adult; Chi-Square Distribution; Child; Child, Preschool; Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional; Female; Heart Defects, Congenital; Heart Septal Defects, Atrial; Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Retrospective Studies
3D ECG; CHD
Hlavacek, A. M., Crawford, F. A., Chessa, K. S., Shirali, G. S. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography is useful in the evaluation of patients with atrioventricular septal defects. Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) 23, 225-231 (2006).