Download Full Text (875 KB)


Background: Infants born (PMA) are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment by age 2. Prior studies have tended to examine individual outcomes separately, rather than investigating whether there are subgroups of children with distinct neurobehavioral profiles.

Objective: To determine distinct neurodevelopmental profiles in 2 year old children born cognitive, language, motor, and behavioral characteristics.

Design/Methods: NOVI (Neonatal Neurobehavior and Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants) is a multi-center study of infants born (BSID-III) subscale scores, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome scores, diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP; Gross Motor Function Classification System and abnormal neurologic exam), and positive screen for autism spectrum disorder (ASD risk; Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised, with Follow-Up [MCHAT-R/F]). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was applied to these measures to group children into mutually exclusive profiles.

Results: Follow-up data were available for N=587/704 (83%) infants. LPA model selection statistics (e.g., Bayesian information criterion [BIC]) were used to identify a four-profile solution (Table 1; Figure 1). Children in profiles 1 (black) and 2 (blue) exhibited the best outcomes at age 2 (e.g., highest Bayley; lowest CBCL scores). Children in profile 3 (red) had the lowest Bayley scores, whereas children in profile 4 (purple) had the highest CBCL scores. Rates of CP diagnosis and ASD risk were highest in profiles 3 and 4 and lowest in profiles 1 and 2. About one-third (27%) of children were classified in one of the atypical profiles (3 or 4).

Conclusion(s): We identified four qualitatively different neurodevelopmental profiles ofcognitive, language, motor, and/or behavioral impairment. The study of profiles offers a nuanced “whole child” approach to understanding outcomes for children born very preterm.

Presented at the 2021 PAS Virtual Conference

Publication Date




When and Where Presented

Presented at the 2021 PAS Virtual Conference

Neurodevelopmental profiles of infants born < 30 weeks' gestation at 2 years of age

Included in

Pediatrics Commons