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This study investigated concentrations of immunoglobulin isotypes IgA, IgE, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgM with respect to ethnicity, age and gender across a large cohort utilizing the Health Facts data warehouse from Cerner. Immunoglobulin concentrations from 443,442 patients were used, ranging in age from 0 to over 90 years, with varying comorbidities to represent a diverse population. African American and Asian patients had similar immunoglobulin concentrations to each other, but both were significantly different to other ethnicities, most noticeably, Caucasian patients. Apart from IgG1, immunoglobulin concentrations were significantly different between male and female patients. Immunoglobulin concentrations were also dependent on age, with the most significant increase in concentrations occurring in the early years of life. Although the distribution of IgA, IgG and IgM concentrations broadened as age increased, most of the immunoglobulin concentrations analyzed remained stable throughout the middle and late years of life. Upon further examination, male and female patients displayed similar concentrations over time for IgA, IgE and IgM, but for IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3, female patients had higher concentrations early in life and lower later in life when compared to male patients. This comprehensive investigation clearly demonstrates that immunoglobulin concentrations differ according to age, gender and ethnicity, which is significant and must be considered when deciphering test results for patient diagnosis and treatment.
Khanal, Santosh; Glynn, Earl F.; LeMaster, Cas; McLennan, Rebecca; Hoffman, Mark A.; and Bradley, Todd, "A Comprehensive Investigation Into The Influence Of Gender, Ethnicity And Age On Immunoglobulin Concentrations" (2021). Research at Children's Mercy Month 2021. 6.