Renal Function and exposure to Bisphenol A and phthalates in children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.08.006


RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is ubiquitous among adults and children in the United States. Among children and adolescents, those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are potentially at greater risk of adverse effects from BPA and phthalate exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate BPA and phthalate exposure among children with CKD and evaluate associations with three measures of kidney function.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study.

SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: The CKD population was represented by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort study of children with impaired kidney function in the US. The main outcome was assessment of the relationship between chemical exposures and clinical laboratory findings at enrollment into CKiD. Data collected at baseline from participants 1 to 17 years old (N = 538) were analyzed. Urinary BPA and phthalate levels were evaluated at this time point. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative pediatric population, were used for comparison to the CKiD cohort.

RESULTS: Urinary BPA and phthalate levels in the CKiD population were consistently lower than levels detected in healthy children. Additionally, BPA was not significantly associated with blood pressure, proteinuria, or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Within the CKiD population, for select individual and combined phthalates, there was an inverse relationship with the urinary protein:creatinine ratio (LMW phthalates, - 9.53% change; 95% CI: - 14.21, - 4.21; p = 0.001), and in most cases, a positive relationship with eGFR (LMW phthalates, a 3.46 unit increase in eGFR, 95% CI: 1.85, 5.07; p < 0.001).

LIMITATIONS: Lack of longitudinal data, limited assessment of diet and nutritional status.

CONCLUSION: In the study cohort, children with CKD did not have increased exposure to BPA and phthalates. Longitudinal studies with repeated measures are likely to be more informative about the possible health effects of prolonged exposure to BPA and phthalates in pediatric patients with CKD.

Journal Title

Environmental research



First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Benzhydryl Compounds; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Infant; Nutrition Surveys; Phenols; Phthalic Acids; Prospective Studies; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; United States


Bisphenol A; Blood pressure; Children; Chronic Kidney Disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Phthalates; Urinary protein:creatinine ratio

Library Record