Review of bilirubin neurotoxicity II: preventing and treating acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus spectrum disorders.
Previously in Part I of this two-part review, we discussed the current and recent advances in the understanding of the molecular biology and neuropathology of bilirubin neurotoxicity (BNTx). Here in Part II, we summarize current treatment options available to treat the severely jaundiced infants to prevent significant brain damage and improve clinical outcomes. In addition, we review potential novel therapies that are in various stages of research and development. We will emphasize treatments for both prevention and treatment of both acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) and kernicterus spectrum disorders (KSDs), highlighting the treatment of the most disabling neurological sequelae of children with mild-to-severe KSDs whose "rare disease" status often means they are overlooked by the clinical research community at large. As with other secondary dystonias, treatment of the dystonic motor symptoms in kernicterus is the greatest clinical challenge.
Shapiro SM, Riordan SM. Review of bilirubin neurotoxicity II: preventing and treating acute bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus spectrum disorders. Pediatr Res. 2020;87(2):332-337. doi:10.1038/s41390-019-0603-5