Title

Reductions in neonatal listeriosis: "Collateral benefit" of Group B streptococcal prophylaxis?

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

3-1-2016

Identifier

DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.12.015

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that declines in Listeria monocytogenes in infants are related to declines in rates of early-onset Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections associated with widespread prophylaxis using agents with Listeria activity.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using a national administrative database Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). We searched for ICD-9 codes for Listeriosis in infantsperiod.

RESULTS: We identified 183 cases of Listeriosis in infants10,000 admissions (1992-1995) to 2.24 (1996-2002) to 1.31 from (2003-2013) (p < 0.0001). Case rates of early-onset GBS dropped significantly over the study period: 30.10 cases per 1000 admissions (1992-1995) to 21.70 (1996-2002) to 18.57 (2003-2013) (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant correlation between yearly rates of Listeriosis and early-onset GBS (rho: 0.53; p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis of a "collateral benefit" to widespread GBS prophylaxis and further support the position that empiric antibiotic regimens for febrile infants may no longer require Listeria activity.

Journal Title

The Journal of infection

Volume

72

Issue

3

First Page

317

Last Page

323

MeSH Keywords

Antibiotic Prophylaxis; Female; Humans; Incidence; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Infection Control; Listeriosis; Male; Retrospective Studies; Streptococcal Infections; Streptococcus; Streptococcus agalactiae

Keywords

Babies; Group B Strep

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