Iliac screw instrumentation to the pelvis in children with neuromuscular and syndromic scoliosis. No lateral connectors and respect sagittal balance.
STUDY DESIGN: One-center retrospective cohort study.
BACKGROUND: Compared to the traditional iliac screw technique, the modified iliac screw technique has a lower rate of distal implant failure in the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis patients with pelvic obliquity. However, the reasons for decreased failure with the modified iliac screw technique are controversial.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is distal implant failure, as evident by implant breakage or disconnection, more likely to occur in patients receiving the traditional iliac screw technique (PSIS) compared to the modified S2AI (MODS2) technique? (2) After controlling for relevant confounding variables, are there other identifiable risk factors for distal implant failure?
METHODS: We identified patients who underwent pelvic screw fixation by three pediatric spine surgeons from January 2007 to July 2017. Based on the starting point of the iliac screws, patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of PSIS fixation with an offset connector. Group 2 consisted of modified S2AI fixation without an offset connector. Demographic, operative, and radiographic data were obtained.
RESULTS: Cobb angle, lumbar lordosis, and pelvic obliquity were not significantly different between the two groups. Overall distal implant failure was 40/100 (40%) and significant between Group 1 PSIS 29/53 (55%) and Group 2 MODS2 11/47 (23%) (p = 0.002). No other complications were significant. Three risk factors were identified with implant failure: high pelvic incidence (17-fold increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.5 to 53.1, p < 0.001), high angle rod contour (3.8-fold increase, 95% CI = 1.2 to 11.9, p = 0.023), and use of an offset connector (3.2-fold increase, 95% CI = 1.0 to 10.3, p = 0.049). Failure did not correlate with the use of a cross-link, iliac screw diameter, or screw density. Revision surgery related to distal implant failure did not significantly differ between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the use of an offset connector with PSIS fixation, MODS2 fixation had a lower rate of implant failure. Sagittal balance parameters, namely pelvic incidence and angle of rod bend, were the major risk factors for implant failure.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.
Iliac screw fixation; Modified iliac screw fixation; Neuromuscular scoliosis; Offset connector; Sagittal balance
Wu, Z., Schwend, R. M., Anderson, J., Marasigan, J. M., Price, N. Iliac screw instrumentation to the pelvis in children with neuromuscular and syndromic scoliosis. No lateral connectors and respect sagittal balance. Spine Deform 9, 1115-1123 (2021).