Iodine (I), an essential nutrient, is important for thyroid function and therefore growth and development. Fluoride (F), also an essential nutrient, strengthens bones and teeth, and prevents childhood dental caries. Both severe and mild-to-moderate I deficiency and high F exposure during development are associated to decreased intelligence quotient with recent reports associating high levels of F exposure during pregnancy and infancy to low intelligence quotient. Both F and I are halogens, and it has been suggested that F may interfere with the role of I in thyroid function. We provide a scoping review of the literature on I and F exposure dur pregnancy and their individual effects on thyroid function and offspring neurodevelopment. We first discuss I intake and status in pregnancy and the relationship to thyroid function and offspring neurodevelopment. We follow with the F in pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment. We then review the interaction between I and F on thyroid function. We searched for, and found only one study that assessed both I and F in pregnancy. We conclude more studies are needed.
Pregnancy; Female; Humans; Child; Thyroid Gland; Iodine; Fluorides; Dental Caries; Pregnancy Complications
fluoride; iodine; neurodevelopment; pregnancy; thyroid function
Griebel-Thompson AK, Sands S, Chollet-Hinton L, et al. A Scoping Review of Iodine and Fluoride in Pregnancy in Relation to Maternal Thyroid Function and Offspring Neurodevelopment. Adv Nutr. 2023;14(2):317-338. doi:10.1016/j.advnut.2023.01.003