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DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2023-003607; PMCID: PMC10503346


INTRODUCTION: Diabetes distress (DD) describes the unrelenting emotional and behavioral challenges of living with, and caring for someone living with, type 1 diabetes (T1D). We investigated associations between parent-reported and child-reported DD, T1D device use, and child glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in 157 families of school-age children.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Parents completed the Parent Problem Areas in Diabetes-Child (PPAID-C) and children completed the Problem Areas in Diabetes-Child (PAID-C) to assess for DD levels. Parents also completed a demographic form where they reported current insulin pump or continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use (ie, user/non-user). We measured child HbA1c using a valid home kit and central laboratory. We used correlations and linear regression for our analyses.

RESULTS: Children were 49% boys and 77.1% non-Hispanic white (child age (mean±SD)=10.2±1.5 years, T1D duration=3.8±2.4 years, HbA1c=7.96±1.62%). Most parents self-identified as mothers (89%) and as married (78%). Parents' mean PPAID-C score was 51.83±16.79 (range: 16-96) and children's mean PAID-C score was 31.59±12.39 (range: 11-66). Higher child HbA1c correlated with non-pump users (r=-0.16, p < 0.05), higher PPAID-C scores (r=0.36, p < 0.001) and higher PAID-C scores (r=0.24, p < 0.001), but there was no association between child HbA1c and CGM use. A regression model predicting child HbA1c based on demographic variables, pump use, and parent-reported and child-reported DD suggested parents' PPAID-C score was the strongest predictor of child HbA1c.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses suggest parent DD is a strong predictor of child HbA1c and is another modifiable treatment target for lowering child HbA1c.

Journal Title

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care





MeSH Keywords

Male; Female; Humans; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Glycated Hemoglobin; Parents; Mothers; Insulin Infusion Systems


children; hemoglobin A1c; psychology; self-management


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