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DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7239a3; PMCID: PMC10545433


Infants aged < 6 months are not eligible for COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccination during pregnancy has been associated with protection against infant COVID-19-related hospitalization. The Overcoming COVID-19 Network conducted a case-control study during March 9, 2022-May 31, 2023, to evaluate the effectiveness of maternal receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine dose (vaccine effectiveness [VE]) during pregnancy against COVID-19-related hospitalization in infants aged < 6 months and a subset of infants aged < 3 months. VE was calculated as (1 - adjusted odds ratio) x 100% among all infants aged < 6 months and < 3 months. Case-patients (infants hospitalized for COVID-19 outside of birth hospitalization and who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result) and control patients (infants hospitalized for COVID-19-like illness with a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result) were compared. Odds ratios were determined using multivariable logistic regression, comparing the odds of receipt of a maternal COVID-19 vaccine dose (completion of a 2-dose vaccination series or a third or higher dose) during pregnancy with maternal nonvaccination between case- and control patients. VE of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against COVID-19-related hospitalization was 35% (95% CI = 15%-51%) among infants aged < 6 months and 54% (95% CI = 32%-68%) among infants aged < 3 months. Intensive care unit admissions occurred in 23% of all case-patients, and invasive mechanical ventilation was more common among infants of unvaccinated (9%) compared with vaccinated mothers (1%) (p = 0.02). Maternal vaccination during pregnancy provides some protection against COVID-19-related hospitalizations among infants, particularly those aged < 3 months. Expectant mothers should remain current with COVID-19 vaccination to protect themselves and their infants from hospitalization and severe outcomes associated with COVID-19.

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MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report





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MeSH Keywords

Female; Pregnancy; Infant; Humans; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; COVID-19 Vaccines; RNA, Messenger, Stored; Case-Control Studies; Hospitalization; Mothers; Vaccination


SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; COVID-19 Vaccines; Stored Messenger RNA; Case-Control Studies; Hospitalization; Mothers; Vaccination


Publication of the US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.