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Tanayott Thaweethai
Erika B. Rosenzweig
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Mine S. Cicek
Amy J. Elliott
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Richard Gallagher
Maria Laura Gennaro
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Joshua D. Milner
Sindhu Mohandas
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Dongngan T. Truong
David Warburton
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Shifa Ahmed
Almary Akerlundh
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Brett R. Anderson
Judy L. Aschner
Andrew M. Atz
Robin L. Aupperle
Fiona C. Baker
Venkataraman Balaraman
Dithi Banerjee, Children's Mercy HospitalFollow
Deanna M. Barch
Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Sultana Bhuiyan
Marie-Abele C. Bind
Amanda L. Bogie
Tamara Bradford
Natalie C. Buchbinder
Elliott Bueler
Hülya Bükülmez
B J Casey
Linda Chang
Maryanne Chrisant
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Viren D'Sa
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Marion J. Wood
H Shonna Yin
William T. Zempsky
Emily Zimmerman
Benard P. Dreyer
RECOVER-Pediatric Consortium

Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0285635; PMCID: PMC11075869


IMPORTANCE: The prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term outcomes of COVID-19 (post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 [PASC] or "Long COVID") in children and young adults remain unknown. Studies must address the urgent need to define PASC, its mechanisms, and potential treatment targets in children and young adults.

OBSERVATIONS: We describe the protocol for the Pediatric Observational Cohort Study of the NIH's REsearching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Initiative. RECOVER-Pediatrics is an observational meta-cohort study of caregiver-child pairs (birth through 17 years) and young adults (18 through 25 years), recruited from more than 100 sites across the US. This report focuses on two of four cohorts that comprise RECOVER-Pediatrics: 1) a de novo RECOVER prospective cohort of children and young adults with and without previous or current infection; and 2) an extant cohort derived from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (n = 10,000). The de novo cohort incorporates three tiers of data collection: 1) remote baseline assessments (Tier 1, n = 6000); 2) longitudinal follow-up for up to 4 years (Tier 2, n = 6000); and 3) a subset of participants, primarily the most severely affected by PASC, who will undergo deep phenotyping to explore PASC pathophysiology (Tier 3, n = 600). Youth enrolled in the ABCD study participate in Tier 1. The pediatric protocol was developed as a collaborative partnership of investigators, patients, researchers, clinicians, community partners, and federal partners, intentionally promoting inclusivity and diversity. The protocol is adaptive to facilitate responses to emerging science.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: RECOVER-Pediatrics seeks to characterize the clinical course, underlying mechanisms, and long-term effects of PASC from birth through 25 years old. RECOVER-Pediatrics is designed to elucidate the epidemiology, four-year clinical course, and sociodemographic correlates of pediatric PASC. The data and biosamples will allow examination of mechanistic hypotheses and biomarkers, thus providing insights into potential therapeutic interventions.

CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: Clinical Trial Registration: Unique identifier: NCT05172011.

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PLoS One





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MeSH Keywords

Humans; COVID-19; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Young Adult; Adult; Male; Infant; SARS-CoV-2; Infant, Newborn; Prospective Studies; Research Design; Cohort Studies; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome


COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Prospective Studies; Research Design; Cohort Studies; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome


This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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