Echocardiographic spectrum of supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.
Although infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is almost always associated with venous obstruction, the incidence and location of obstruction in supracardiac TAPVC has not been completely delineated. This report summarizes our experience with 20 cases of supracardiac TAPVC diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography from Jan. 1989 to Mar. 1997. Fifty percent were obstructed, and five different sites of narrowing were found. The most common sites of obstruction were at the level of the left pulmonary artery (left vertical vein) and at the insertion into the superior vena cava (right vertical vein). Because nonobstructed Doppler flow patterns are present proximal to the actual site of obstruction in the anomalous pathway, a thorough interrogation of the entire venous channel with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is essential to provide complete preoperative anatomic and hemodynamic details to determine the nature and timing of surgery in this condition.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
Echocardiography; Echocardiography, Doppler, Color; Female; Heart Defects, Congenital; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pulmonary Veins; Retrospective Studies; Videotape Recording
Brown, V. E., De Lange, M., Dyar, D. A., Impastato, L. W., Shirali, G. S. Echocardiographic spectrum of supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 11, 289-293 (1998).