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Background: Neonatal Graves’ disease is a rare disorder of neonatal autoimmune hyperthyroidism secondary to the transplacental passage of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies. Although neonatal Graves’ disease is transient, it is associated with cardiac dysfunction, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity, craniosynostosis, and developmental delay and can be life-threatening. Additionally, infants with neonatal Graves’ disease can rarely present with primary or central hypothyroidism later in infancy or childhood. This is suspected to be due to the disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis or development of the thyroid gland. Clinical Case: Here we describe a case of neonatal Graves’ disease that has been complicated by persistent central hypothyroidism requiring levothyroxine treatment. This was a preterm infant with tachycardia, biventricular heart failure, and hepatomegaly who was transferred to a higher level of care NICU for cardiac and respiratory failure. Pregnancy was complicated by history of maternal Graves’ disease status post radioiodine ablation. Maternal TRAB and thyroid levels were unavailable. Initial thyroid studies on DOL 1 were notable for suppressed TSH of <0.02mcIU/mL, elevated free T4 6.9ng/dL, and elevated total T4 >24.9mcg/dL. Total T3 was normal at 161ng/dL (50-452ng/dL) on DOL 2, and TSI was elevated at 4.8 (TSI Index, normal


Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Pediatrics


Presented at ENDO 2023, Chicago, IL; June 15-18, 2023.

Central Hypothyroidism Following Neonatal Graves' Presentation